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French is spoken other places than just France, and these places have had libraries... One of the greatest, during the 1700s, was in Poland. Herewith a paper on that one, by Maria Witt, telling a fascinating and engagingly-European and often-dramatic story:
"The strange life of one of the greatest European
libraries of the eighteenth century: the Zaluski
collection in Warsaw"
by Maria Witt, Instructor, Paris X Nanterre *
During the eighteenth century, the French language conquered Poland. This period saw the creation and development of the largest French-language library in the world outside of France: "a giant collection containing 400,000 volumes, consequently one of the two or three most important libraries in Europe".
The Zaluski Library, founded by two brothers: Andrzej Stanislaw Kostka (1695-1758) and Jozef Andrzej (1702-1774), which opened in Warsaw in 1747, was in existence for about 50 years.
The library subsequently was "transferred" to Saint Petersburg, in 1795, as a war prize, where it served as the basis for the Imperial Public Library. Around 50,000 of the Zaluskis' books were returned by Russia, then by the USSR, over the course of the nineteenth century and between 1923 and 1935, but the Second World War reserved a final tragedy for them.
Because of this strange and tragic fate, it is difficult now to reconstruct a complete picture of the Zaluski collection, and of how the library functioned. Too many documents, letters, archival resources, catalogs, and inventories have been lost forever.
Nevertheless, a certain picture can be reconstructed thanks to secondary documents, which have preserved information about their contents, among them the documents presented at the 1933 Exposition at the National Library of Warsaw, historical and biographical works published between the two World Wars, and the recent research of J. Kozlowski.
During the eighteenth century, the French language finally conquered Poland. Up to that time, the pre-eminent language was Latin, which served as the official language. In the second half of the seventeenth century, however, the Polish court came under French influence due to the efforts of two women: Marie-Louise de Gonzague, daughter of the Duke de Nevers, who married King Ladislas IV in 1645, and her confidante Marie-Casimire d'Arquien (Maryienska), the daughter of a Nivernais gentleman, married to Jean Sobieski. In 1645 all the princes and all the nobles of the Court spoke French more often and more willingly than they did their own language.
The height of French influence was attained during the reign of Stanislas Auguste Poniatowski (1764-1795), who received his esthetic education in Paris, in the salons of Madame Geoffrin. He expressed himself in French better than in Polish, he conducted his correspondence in French, and it was in French that he wrote his Mémoires. French became the customary language of Polish society.
A curious example of this evolution is provided by the mixture of languages in two letters of Joseph Zaluski. The first, a mixture of Polish and Latin written in Paris at the age of 19: "My tu horas et monumenta mamy disposita i wszelkiej zazywamy apllikacja..." -- and the second, written in Polish and French at the end of his life in Russia, "Jezlim byl zarliwy przy wierze swietej, toc w tym zgrzeszylem car je n'ai fait que mon devoir d'évêque. Chaque honnête homme fait le devoir de sa charge." [If I was loyal to my holy faith, then I did not sin, for I have only done my duty as a bishop. Every gentleman does the duty of his office....]
An exceptional library (1747-1795)
The Zaluski library was created by two brothers with uncommon destinies.
These two ecclestiastical aristocrats, high functionaries of the Church, conceived of an entirely democratic and astonishingly liberal institution. Through their library, an elite knowledge reserved only for initiates was to become accessible to all, with great freedom and without censorship.
The Zaluski brothers, Andrzej Stanislaw Kostka (André, 1695-1758) and Jozef Andrzej (Joseph, 1702-1774), were book-lovers from earliest youth. Descendants of an old noble Polish family, they received princely educations, including voyages throughout Europe with long sojourns in Rome and Paris. Through their uncle, the Bishop of Plock, they were destined for the Church.
The Zaluskis. Paris and France (1716-1717, 1720-1723)
During their first journey the two brothers spent almost a year in Paris, from the fall of 1716 to the summer of 1717, under the tutelage of Cardinal Melchior de Polignac, the former French ambassador to Poland. They pursued their studies in dialectic, rhetoric, Roman history, geography, the Bible and -- although they were preparing themselves for the priesthood -- they had a dancing master. "It is not to dance, but to learn how to bow, according to the fashion here."
From earliest youth, the brothers collected books: the first inventory that Joseph drew up in 1720, at the age of 18, listed 3000 books. One year later, after the death of their uncle the bishop, they inherited a large and valuable collection of books to which was added the collection of an ancestor, Primate Olszowski.
From 1720 to 1723, Joseph again was in Paris. He pursued advanced studies at the seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris. He spent time at Issy-Les-Moulineaux, visited the Cistercian abbey of Carnoët in Brittany, gave homilies in French at the church of St. Sulpice, visited la Trappe, spent time with Melchior de Polignac, and at the same time he constantly visited libraries and bookstores. He bought books and manuscripts; in libraries, he copied unknown or unpublished sources on the history of Poland.
It must be remembered that the fourth public library in Paris, "the Caroline", library of the priests of the Christian Doctrine, was opened just before his arrival in Paris, on November 24, 1718, according to the bequest of a doctor of theology at the University of Paris, Miron.
Return to Poland (1723-1736)
Named Bishop of Plock, Joseph considered founding a public library in his episcopal palace, but finally in 1723 the two brothers decided to combine their own collections, with those they had inherited from their ancestors, in order to open a public library in Warsaw.
According to the Leipzig newspaper in 1728, Zaluski already owned 8000 volumes, from all over Europe, and he planned the publication of a complete bibliography of Polish and foreign writers who had written about the history of Poland.
Thus in 1732 Joseph, in Programma Literarium, announced his plan to open a public library, and he presented a vast publishing program based on his collections, calling on all persons interested in collecting documents and preparing bibliographies and other reference sources. The political upheaval in Europe after the death of King August the Strong (August II), in 1733, would make this project unrealizable, delaying the creation of the public library for 20 years.
In the struggle over the succession to the Polish throne, France supported as its candidate Stanislas Leszczynski, who for eight years had been father-in-law to the king of France. Eventually it was the son of August II who would seize the crown of Poland, with the support of Russia and Austria.
Bishop Zaluski -- francophone, francophile, and partisan of Leszczynski -- decided to leave Poland, in 1736, to go the court of his king in exile in Lunéville. His library by that time already was famous. Polish scholars begged him at his departure to leave it in the country, at the service of science.
In Lunéville, from 1736 on, he began to complete his collection. He frequently went to Paris and Versailles and visited libraries.
According to a list he drew up himself, Zaluski made the acquaintance in Paris of 180 men of letters -- learned men, bibliophiles, collectors, and booksellers -- and he visited numerous libraries, "more than in any other city". Several authors offered him their works for his library. Certain books given to him by Jean Paul Bignon, librarian of the Royal Library, have been preserved up to the present.
In exchange, the Bishop offered gifts of Polish books: to Buffon, he sent Auctuarium historiae naturalis, to Gabriel François Coyer, he gave books and sources for his research on Jan III Sobieski. To the famous heraldry specialist d'Hozier, he offered the family tree of the Ossolinski princes. Réaumur, the famous inventor of the thermometer, received from Zaluski collections of Polish observations of grasshoppers, for his work in progress.
The passion for books led the bishop sometimes to the limits of the acceptable. He did not hesitate to exchange books with Pierre-Jacob Sepher, the owner of an excellent collection of books, "which questioned the faith, dubious, paradoxical, fanatical, condemned to the pyre".
At least five books from the library of the Abbey of St. Germain des Prés fell into the escarcelle [a monk's leather purse] of the Zaluski Library, as did at least one from the Dominican establishment on the rue St. Jacques. Numerous books come from the library of the Jesuits at the Collège Louis le Grand, from the canons of the Church of St. Genevieve, from the Royal Library, from the Sorbonne, from the Congregation of St. Sulpice, in short from all the libraries of Paris.
In Lorraine, Zaluski maintained relations with all of the important abbeys and colleges, and with learned men around Lunéville. At the time of his stay in Lunéville, Antoine Lancelot, his friend and partner in bibliophilic exchanges, drew up the inventory of the archives of Lorraine at the request of Louis XV.
Stanislas Leszczynski, who founded a public library which was open every day (1750), certainly discussed his project with his friend the bishop. Their ideas on this subject, on which they were passionate, were not always the same. Disagreements arose. It was during one of these estrangements that the bishop decided to return to Poland, in 1742. Several years later, his collections also were sent home from Lunéville: "several thousand volumes packed in 84 crates".
At the library of Nancy was left only, "the small Zaluski collection". The bishop offered certain of his volumes to the Academy of Nancy, in order to be admitted as a foreign associate there in 1756, on the request of the King. It should be remembered that the academy founded by Stanislas was a French language academy, "which was not a given in a duchy where part of the population spoke a German dialect. During the life of Stanislas, all written and oral communication was in French, with the sole exception of a text in Latin by the famous astronomer Father Boscovitch. The idea was to prepare the return of Lorraine to France." (1)
The mobility of the itinerant bishop can be astonishing: at a time when each voyage involved laborious preparation and fatigue, he traveled everywhere in Europe -- Italy, Germany, Austria, Holland and Russia found themselves in his path. He was a member of scholarly societies in Italy (Rome, Florence, Bologna) and Germany (Leipzig, Berlin, Grifie, Jena); he belonged to the academies of St. Petersburg, Nancy, Stockholm and Olomouc (Olomuniec). But his attempts to obtain a chair in the French Academy were unsuccessful.
His personal contacts were a very small part of his activities as a librarian: booksellers affiliated as his agents were to be found in all the large and not-so-large cities of Europe.
Poland and Warsaw
The elder brother of Joseph, André, also collected books from his youth. It was said that even while hunting he was inseparable from his books. When he became a bishop at the age of 28, he gathered his books in his immense episcopal palace at Putulsk.
Before his departure for Europe in 1736, Joseph prepared his future library, concerned about his books being stored in inappropriate places and being made inaccessible to researchers. (Remember his Programma Literarium of 1732, mentioned above). Around 1734 the brothers sent their collections to the cloister of the Carmelites, in Warsaw, where some of the books scattered in the cells were eaten by rats.
On April 7, 1736, André bought the Danilowiczowski Palace, in the center of Warsaw, as a possible site for his future library. While his brother Joseph was staying in Europe, André received the library of the deceased Jean III Sobieski (800 volumes), who had bequeathed it to him in 1740. This collection became the principal treasure of his library. It included several books inherited from the kings Sigismond August, Batory, Sigismond III, and Ladislas IV.
The preparation for the opening of the library would last ten years, at first because of construction in the Palace which was intended to receive the collections. In 1744 Joseph devised and founded the "Society of Readers" (Towarzystwo Czytelnicze), the purpose of which was the purchase and reading of books. After being selected by its members, the books were to be donated to the library.
In 1745, the brothers used the press "Polish News" (Kurier Polski) to call on printers to give them new works, so that they could establish a national library. This appeal was renewed twice in the same newspaper.
CIVIUM IN USUS
Finally the library "CIVIUM IN USUS" (FOR THE USE OF CITIZENS) was inaugurated, on August 8, 1747, although construction still would continue for 15 years. At the opening, there were about 180,000 volumes. (2)
At the entrance of the Palace, over the doorway, were the following inscriptions: "Adolescentibus illicium [an attraction for the young]", "Senibus subsidium [an aid to the old]", "Studiosis negotium [a mission for the curious]", "Occupatis diverticulum [a diversion for workers]", "Otiosis spectaculum [a spectacle for the idle]", and "Conditori gloriosum monumentum [a glorious monument for its founder]". Under these inscriptions was the coat of arms of Junosza de Zaluski, with the motto, "Sic vos, non vobis".
It was planned to be open "Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, morning and evening". From its opening in 1746, the library had internal rules instituted by André. Certain rules had, in addition to their role in the codification of principles, a didactic purpose: they taught appropriate behavior in a public library.
The Zaluski Library was a lending library: it permitted patrons to consult the collection on site or to borrow books, in the capital as well as in the provinces, which was extraordinary for that time (an ancestor of today's interlibrary loan).
The Danilowiczowski Palace and its collections
From this time forward, the Danilowiczowski Palace became an obligatory place to visit for any cultivated foreigner visiting Poland in the last years of the monarchy. The detailed descriptions that they left witness their admiration for the collection and the organization of the library.
It was a large and ancient palace, with an elongated quadrangular floor plan, and it was embellished with statues. "The interior," says Jacques Bernouilli in his description of his trip to Poland in 1778, (3) "is a great labyrinth of rooms full of books, some two hundred thousand. The largest room, sumptuously decorated, contains numerous French works, and the others are exceptional either because of their bindings or the numerous engravings they contain. That room, long, beautiful and with very high ceilings, is also decorated by numerous statues that the eminent Zaluski brothers have commissioned in memory of the worthiest and most noble men of their country... The Latin books on the third floor also occupy a very large room, completely full of shelves; next to it there are several more rooms completely crowded with books. In the attic are placed the duplicates of the Polish books; I doubt however that all the duplicates are stored there, for sometimes the founders of the library have acquired five, six, or even seven copies of these 'rare works'."
The Zaluski collection was put together in the same spirit as the information for the Great Encyclopedia: a representation of the totality of human knowledge. Zaluski wanted to bring together all written texts, for, "only posterity will be able to judge the usefulness of certain manuscripts or printed works." Using the press, from 1745 on he requested printers to send him their books, "even the most slender, because what will not serve one, can be useful to another."
The brothers were the first to set themselves the goal of collecting all Polish printed works. It was an enormous task, given that printers in Poland became active by 1473 (among the first in Europe, three years after Paris). From that date on the production of printed works continued to increase. And, nonetheless, the Polish collections of the Zaluski Library in 1740 were already so rich that the bibliophile bishop sought only authors who were, "forgotten, unknown, or lost".
It is known that the Zaluski Library contained small-format books and pamphlets, which was rare since librarians of former times disdained these types of documents. The two brothers never agreed: the elder reproached his younger brother for a penchant for loose pamphlets and small books, "worthy of bric-à-brac". In their place, he wanted to see in the library, "autores classicos et in biblioteca pernecessarios" (classical authors and those thoroughly necessary for a library).
Printers, scholarly societies, or individual authors responded willingly to the appeals of the Zaluskis, who continued to search through Polish and foreign libraries and follow auctions, buying personal collections at the death of scholars. In the collections of the National Library in Warsaw are found, for example, the catalog of the public sale of the Mylius firm in Berlin (1767), carefully annotated by Zaluski, and the bill for some sixty books.
When the acquisition of a book was not possible, Joseph Zaluski ordered a copy of the document, which was then prepared at his request. (The magnates employed "scriptores" -- whenever the demand for a document was rare, it was more profitable to re-write the book than to publish a few copies).
At the end of its existence, the library had doubled its collection and it contained more than 400,000 volumes. The collections moved to St. Petersburg were counted twice (by Bogdanov in 1796 and Antonovskij in 1806), and reflect these statistics.
Disciplines and their classification
Joseph presented the library's collection through the principal disciplines such as theology, philosophy, scholastics and history. Law and medicine were not his principal preoccupations. But Olenin, director of the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg, described the library at Warsaw as "absolutely encyclopedic" and possessing books of all disciplines, human sciences, and arts. The most numerous was the theology collection, and after that history and literature.
According to several sources the books were classified first by language, then by theme, next by format, and finally by alphabetical order. The principles of thematic classification established by Joseph well before the library's opening remained in effect until 1787. Then this thematic classification was replaced by the systematic classification of Konopczynski, which identified five areas of knowledge: Religion, Thought, Memory, Imagination, Language.(4) This classification scheme would last only seven years.
The sources contain some information about the preservation of the collection. To guard against rats, the books were put in trunks and a cat was bought: it was allowed to circulate freely in the Palace, thanks to openings specially devised. To avoid dust, special slipcovers were put on the globes. During the renovation of the building, André asked his brother Joseph to demolish the adjoining storage building, so that, "the sun and wind might circulate around the library". He also asked him to avoid putting books against the walls until they were completely dry.
After the death of the Zaluskis, in order to reduce the humidity, it was decided to put crushed stone beneath the floor. In the courtyard there was a canopy under which dusty books were shaken and damp ones were dried. "Rotten or worm-eaten books" which threatened to infect the others were buried (burning them was too dangerous and could cause a fire), or isolated far from the rest of the collection.
Catalogs and processing
The document collections of the library were described in numerous catalogs, manuscripts and printed works. During the eighteenth century, nearly one hundred manuscript catalogs of the collection were produced. At the beginning of the 1760s, when there already were more than 50, a list was drawn up that later was included under the title Cataloghi Bibliothecae meae inservientes [Catalogs used in my library] in the Bibliographie Zalusciana of Janocki (1763-1766).
The list was soon out of date, since new catalogs continually were developed. In addition to catalogs, throughout the life of the library guides or selected lists of the collections of books were devised, beginning with Les titres de la librairie publique de Zaluski [Titles of the Public Library of Zaluski] and Librairie encyclopédique des meilleurs auteurs dans chaque matière [Encyclopedic Library of the Best Authors in Each Subject].
In the library, processing was mainly the responsibility of Joseph Zaluski who, book in hand, made decisions about classification, adding letters and numbers to the title pages. These symbols were a sort of shelf number, which allowed the arrangement of the books in a given order as well as their retrieval from the shelf.
Zaluski analyzed the documents carefully: on the title page, he underlined the elements necessary for cataloging -- name of the author, title, and date of the work. If these data were lacking, he added his own title based on the provenance of the document. He thus engaged in a real effort of bibliographic control and, when necessary, completed the record with a commentary, with missing first name, title of nobility or profession (dignité), membership in a religious order, nationality, etc. Very often, especially for Polish documents, he expanded or identified pseudonyms, cryptonyms, or anonymous authors.
Sometimes, particularly for precious manuscripts, he added a note of evaluation. In the same way rare and precious books were indicated by stars or by the expressions "liber rarus" (rare book), "perrarus" (very rare), or "rarissimus" (extremely rare).
[End of Part 1. Part 2 of 2, covering the dispersals and
reconstruction of the library, will appear here on October 15.]
Original appearance of this paper: in French --
This paper first was presented at the World Library and Information Congress, 2005, at Oslo, Norway (71st IFLA
General Conference), and is reproduced here with permission.
Special thanks to Jan Kozlowski and Halina Tchorzewska-Kabata for information and documents.
-- and in English, translated from the French original by Robert O. Steele --
Original appearance of this paper: in French --
This paper first was presented at the World Library and Information Congress, 2005, at Oslo, Norway (71st IFLA General Conference), and is reproduced here with permission.
Special thanks to Jan Kozlowski and Halina Tchorzewska-Kabata for information and documents.
Notes to Part 1: [Part 2 will contain a general bibliography]
1) La Lorraine (1763-1742) : Zaluski's stay in Lunéville --
(References provided by Jan Kozlowski)
2) Poland and Warsaw : Information about the opening of the library --
3) The Danilowiczowski Palace and its collections
4) Disciplines and their classification : Kopsczynski's classification (1787-) at the Zaluski Library -- (Source: Kozlowski, after Lodynski and Polska Stanislawowska) --
|Bible||Physics||Historical Sciences :||Poetry||Grammar|
|Biblical Commentary||Metaphysics||Chronology||Painting & Sculpture||Rhetoric|
|Holy Fathers||Ethics||Genealogy||Civil Architecture||Poetics|
* Collections of printed works and manuscripts in the Zaluski Library by language: (after Kozlowski)
* Manuscripts by discipline: (According to the classification of the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg, after Kozlowski)
|History of literature||3.8%|
* Overview of the current state of the Zaluski collections in Polish libraries:
|12,000||Library of the University of Warsaw|
|Isolated printed works in the majority of large public or private libraries, for example:|
|Ossolineum, Library of the University||Wroclaw|
|>2000||National Library of Warsaw|
|Isolated manuscripts in these libraries:|
|Ossolineum, Library of the University||Wroclaw|
|8,500 letters of Joseph Zaluski (1724-1773)||National Library|
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